BacterioRhodopsin in purple membrane
Micro-electrodes plugged in the front-end
Compact instrument main board
This instrument enables different electrical measurements:
  • voltammetry
  • electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

We have developed the complete circuitry (main board and micro-electrode mounting heads to be plugged into the chemical cell), the measurement setup and a fully-customized sofware for data acquisition and elaboration.

Applications: investigation of conductivity/ dielectric properties of samples such as thin-films, self- assembled monolayers and biological membranes.
Research Project: SPOT-NOSED european project, concerning the development of a nano-bio-sensor based on an array of single olfactory receptors attached on functionalised metal nanoelectrodes.
Team: Giorgio Ferrari and Laura Fumagalli
Research Partners:
  • CNR-INFM, Lecce - Italy
  • CBEN - Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
  • CNM - Barcelona, Spain
  • INRA - Lab. de biologie cellulaire et moléculaire, France
  • CNRS - Ecole Centrale de Lyone, France
  • Univ. "La sapienza", Roma, Italy

User-friendly multi-measurements software

Olfactory receptor characterization with AFM
Chip layout

In order to minimize parasitics and so to reach extremely deep sensitivity , we are designing (and testing) integrated ultra low noise amplifiers .

These analog chips are realized in standard 0.35um CMOS technology and based on an innovative patented scheme: the integrator/differentiator transimpedance topology .

  • Low Noise, High sensitivity down to 20pA
  • Wide Bandwidth, greater than 1MHz
Goal: Realization of system-on-chip for molecular impedace analysis and development of bio-nano-sensors .


Team: Fabio Gozzini, Alessandro Molari and Giorgio Ferrari
Test board of the first stage integrator
Aermacchi M346
Modern "glass cockpit"
Solide-stade compass board prototype
Solid-state compass for emergency navigation systems:
  • high angular resolution : better than 0.1°
  • high accuracy : 0.5° over extended thermal operating range
  • wide bandwidth : 3.2Hz
The magnetometer unit complies with all standards for civil and military aircraft stand-by systems.

The complete system is composed by sensors, analog signal-conditioning, acquisition and computer-based elaboration.

Research Project: development of solid-state and ultra compact integrated instruments to measure basic flight parameters based on micromachined sensors.
Team: Marco Carminati and Giorgio Ferrari
Research Partner: Logic Sistemi Avionici S.p.A.
Impedance spectroscopy mode for AFM

Trans-impedance preamplifier for nanoscale impedance microscopy to use in combination with an AFM for measuring electrical properties of material in the local range of tens nanometres.

  • wide bandwidth: from 100Hz to 1MHz
  • very low input noise: 1fA/vHz
  • equivalent transimpedance of 160MOhm

The amplifier is able to measure fA currents in combination with a dual phase lock-in, and can measure resistance up to TOhm and capacitances in the aF range.

Team: Laura Fumagalli, Lorenzo Gerosa and Giorgio Ferrari
Research Partners:
  • CBEN - Universitat de Barcelona, Spain
  • CNM - Barcelona, Spain
  • INRA - Lab. de biologie cellulaire et moléculaire, France
  • CNR-INFM, Lecce - Italy
  • CNRS - Ecole Centrale de Lyone, France
  • Università degli studi di Milano
Preamplifier unit and head-mount front-end
Test board

In order to investigate the interaction between Microwaves and Random Telegraph Signal in ultra-scaled MOSFET, this circuit is able to:

  • provide high precision DC-AC signals
  • read and amplify (with a low noise) the drain current

Then, the analog signal is converted by an ADC and processed by our software to analyze the RTS.

Team: Alessandro Calderoni and Giorgio Ferrari
Research Partner: MDM Laboratory