MEMS and MicrosensorsProfessor: Giacomo
Langfelder
Teaching Assistants: Giorgio Mussi, Marco Bestetti The aim of the course is to introduce the basic concepts of some types of electronic devices which allow to acquire physical chemical and biological information from the outside world and also to act on it on it at microscopic level. The attention is focused on the operating principles of optical image sensors and of MicroElectroMechanicalSystems (MEMS). Their integration in more complex systems is also considered. The performances of these devices are discussed with particular reference to their biomedical applications. Classworks about specific casestudies as well as experimental laboratory activity are foreseen. News and Communications  Welcome folks, in this page you will find the slides and the detailed and discussed solutions of numerical exercise! The slides are updated the day (or a few days) before the lecture (with the lastyear version already available). The numerical exercises solutions are uploaded after the corresponding lecture. The most updated course schedule is always available here! Helpful slides, reviewing basics of electronics for nonelectronic students, and focusing on the purpose of the course, have been added! Check further below on this page! During the classes I will sometimes show results of some Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. The corresponding videos are available here (now available also as GIF images). Slides of the course  C01 Course Introduction C02 MEMS Technology C03 MEMS Spring Mass Damper C04 MEMS Accelerometer Part 1 C05 MEMS Accelerometer Part 2 C06 MEMS Accelerometer Part 3 C07 MEMS Accelerometer Part 4 C08 MEMS Resonator Part 1 C09 MEMS Resonator Part 2 C10 MEMS Resonator Part 3 C11 MEMS Gyroscope Part 1 C12 MEMS Gyroscope Part 2 C13 MEMS Gyroscope Part 3 C14 MEMS Gyroscope Part 4 C15 MEMS Gyroscope Part 5 C16 MEMS Gyroscope Part 6 C17 MEMS Magnetometer Part 1  old version C18 MEMS Magnetometer Part 2  old version C19 MEMS Magnetometer Part 3  old version C20 MEMS Characterization Part 1  old version C21 MEMS Characterization Part 2  old version C22 CMOS Sensors Basics Part 1  old version C23 CMOS Sensors Basics Part 2  old version C24 CMOS APS3T Part 1  old version C25 CMOS APS3T Part 2  old version C26 CMOS APS3T Part 3  old version C27 CMOS APS4T Part 1  old version C28 CMOS APS4T Part 2  old version Exercises  E01 Accelerometer Design E02 Accelerometer Readout E03 Torsional Accelerometer E04 CAD Perfofated Capacitor E05 Resonator Design E06 Oscillator Design E07 Gyroscope Mechanical Design E08 Gyroscope Drive Design E09 Gyroscope Sense Design E10 Magnetometer design E11 Magnetometer readout E12 Microphone design E13 CAD MEMS accelerometer E14 CAD gyroscope redesign E15 Photocurrent E16 SNR E17 CAD pixel E18 DR E19 PTC and 4T APS E20 Exam simulation Review of basic electronics (focused for nonelectronic students)  B01 photodiodes B02 MOS noise B03 eln basics Industrial seminars with round tables  S01 MEMS Gyroscopes: design challenges and alternative approaches Presenters: Vito Avantaggiati, Cristiano Marra, TDKInvensense The seminar is divided in two parts: the first one is a review of open market specifications for MEMS gyroscopes, highlighting challenges that a system designer should face in his everyday work. Special attention is paid to ZRO (ZeroRateOffset): the impact of quadrature and demodulation phase on offset stability is analyzed in detail. The second part is related to a state of art technique to get offset stability, the force feedback. This technique uses a closed loop control to minimize the quadrature offset. Challenges and limitations of this technique will be reviewed in some details. S02 MEMS clocks: small footprint timekeeping Presenter: Paolo Frigerio, Politecnico di Milano The seminar will introduce basic concepts of timekeeping devices for lowpower applications. Details on the electromechanical resonator and on the singletransistor electronic circuit will be disucssed in light of the tight specifications of this application, with an outlook at market trends, which see capacitive MEMS resonators gradually replacing quartzbased piezoelectric elements. S03 MEMS gyroscopes: design overview and market trends Presenter: Stefano Facchinetti, ST Microelectronics MEMSbased devices have experienced a rapid and massive growth in recent years, and can now be found in most of the products that we use every day. Inertial measurement units (IMU), including accelerometers and gyroscopes, have been among the first to be used, and now new products are entering the market – like MEMSbased microphones and micromirrors. Nevertheless, the design of these products is not as consolidated as that of other electronic components, while market requirements are increasing very fast with respect to other “standard” devices. Moreover, the presence of the electromechanical component requires a strict interaction among various groups: analog designers, MEMS designers, technology specialists, packaging designers. These peculiarities of MEMS products make the system design phase both challenging and very exciting. The aim of this short seminar is (i) to provide an overview of current MEMS market status and trends, (ii) give some guidelines for the design of the gyroscope electronics and (iii) show the main product specifications for gyroscopebased systems. Exams Text and Solution (use them for practice during exam preparation)  03/02/2016  Text and Solution 17/02/2016  Text and Solution 11/07/2016  Text and Solution 13/09/2016  Text and Solution 27/09/2016  Text and Solution 30/01/2017  Text and Solution 16/02/2017  Text and Solution 03/07/2017  Text and Solution 18/07/2017  Text and Solution 08/09/2017  Text and Solution 31/01/2018  Text and Solution 21/02/2018  Text and Solution 28/06/2018  Text and Solution 13/07/2018  Text and Solution 09/03/2018  Text and Solution 09/01/2019  Text and Solution 31/01/2019  Text and Solution 26/06/2019  Text and Solution 19/07/2019  Text and Solution 02/09/2019  Text and Solution MATLAB Scripts  MATLAB routine #1 for sample Root Allan Variance visualization with different white noise, 1/f noise and offset drift. Enjoy... MATLAB routine #2 for sample Photon Transfer Curve visualization as a function of different active pixel parameters. Enjoy... Cadence Files  Cadence Tar file for Cad exercise on APS 

Other Courses 

Optoelectronic Systems and Digital Imaging Professor:
Giacomo Langfelder
Teaching Assistant: Paolo Minotti The course covers the operation of some optoelectronic systems of general interest, starting from the characteristics of components and from the needs of the applications, in order to make the student is able to choose the most appropriate solutions, knowing the limits of use and performance theoretically achievable, and to design simple systems. Topics: 1) Systems for capturing digital images and resolution limits of optics and sensor. CCD and CMOS sensors; electronic signal reading; S / N ratio; dynamic range. Acquisition of color images. 2) Systems for the representation of colour images: LCD displays. Gamut. Backlight. 3) Systems for colour measurement: colour spaces and colour representation. Colorimeters and spectrophotometers. 4) Measurement of infrared signals: sensors. Applications to imaging and temperature measurement. Slides of the course: 00 Introduction 01 Human Vision 02 Light Sources 03 Geometric Optics 04 Aberration Diffraction 05 FOV and DOF 06 Resolution MTF 07 Sensor MTF 08 Sensor Introduction 09 Active Pixel 10 HDR 11 4T and CDS 12 Color Acquisition 13 CFA and Demosaicking 14 System Noise 15 TFD 16 XYZ Color Space 17 Perceptual Color Spaces 18 Color Conversion 19 White Balance 20 Color Errors 21 Multispectral Imaging 22 Digital Imaging Simulations 23 Image Representation 24 Display Technologies 25 Vis+NIR Acquisition 26 Infrared Temperature Measurement 27 Auxiliary Subsystems Exercises: E01 Photodiodes Review E02 Evaluation of the number of photons impinging on a camera pixel, starting from a generic scene E03 Photography at known distances of known objects: choice of the camera parameters E04 MOS and Noise Review E05 SignaltoNoise Ratio of a 3T APS for digital cameras E06 Dynamic Range, choice of the ADC, maximum SNR of a 3T APS E07 Timing issues in CMOS image sensors: maximum readout speed and rolling shutter readout E08 Circuits for Correlated Double Sampling E09 Photon Transfer E10 Layeredjunction sensor E11 White Balance E12 Color Instruments E13 Summary Exercises E14 LiquidCristal Display E15 Image Sensor Design E16 Temperature Monitoring E17 Summary Exercises Sample Exam Exams: 29/06/2015 14/07/2015 07/09/2015 21/09/2015 