SandLab Publications List

 

Journal Articles

  • S. Dellea, R. Ardito, B. De Masi, A. Tocchio, F. Rizzini, G. Langfelder, Sidewall adhesion evolution in epitaxial polysilicon as a function of Impact Kinetic Energy and Stopper Area, JMEMS, Vol. 24, n.6, 2015, pp. 1817-1826.
  • S. Dellea, F. Giacci, A. Longoni, G. Langfelder, In-plane and Out-of-plane gyroscopes based on piezoresistive NEMS detection, JMEMS, Vol. 25, n.1, 2016, pp.134-143.
  • P. Minotti, S. Brenna, G. Laghi, A. G. Bonfanti, G. Langfelder, A. L. Lacaita, A sub-400nT/rt-Hz, 775 uW, multi-loop MEMS magnetometer with integrated readout electronics, JMEMS, Vol. 24, n. 6, 2015, pp. 1938-1950.
  • G. Laghi, S. Dellea, A. Longoni, P. Minotti, A. Tocchio, S. Zerbini, G. Langfelder, Torsional MEMS magnetometer operated off-resonance for in-plane magnetic field detection, Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2015, in press. Available online: Digital Object Identifier 10.1016/j.sna.2015.01.027.
  • G. Langfelder, S. Dellea, A. Berthelot, P. Rey, A. Tocchio, A. Longoni, Analysis of Mode-Split Operation in MEMS Based on Piezoresistive Nanogauges, IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2014, in press, available online Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JMEMS.2014.2324032.
  • A. Caspani, C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, V. Zega, S. Zerbini, Dynamic nonlinear behavior of torsional resonators in MEMS, J. Micromech. Microeng. 24 (2014) 095025 (9pp).
  • S. Dellea, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, Fatigue in Nanometric Single-Crystal Silicon Layers and Beams, IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2014, in press, available online Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JMEMS.2014.2352792.
  • A. Frangi, G. Laghi, G. Langfelder, P. Minotti, S. Zerbini, Optimization of Sensing Stators in Capacitive MEMS Operating at Resonance, IEEE Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 2014, in press, available online Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JMEMS.2014.2381515.
  • G. Langfelder, G. Laghi, P. Minotti, A. Tocchio, A. Longoni, Off-Resonance Low-Pressure Operation of Lorentz Force MEMS Magnetometers, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 61, No. 12, December 2014, 7124-7130.
  • M.A. Martínez, E.M. Valero, J. Hernández-Andrés, J. Romero, G. Langfelder, Combining transverse field detectors and color filter arrays to improve multispectral imaging systems, Applied Optics, Vol. 53, No. 13, 1 May 2014, pp. C14-C24.
  • A. Caspani, C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, Compact biaxial micromachined resonant accelerometer, J. Micromech. Microeng. 23 (2013) 105012 (10pp).
  • G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, Operation of Lorentz-Force MEMS Magnetometers With a Frequency Offset Between Driving Current and Mechanical Resonance, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 50, No. 1, January 2014, 4700106 (6pp).
  • G. Jaramillo, C. Buffa, M. Li, F.J. Brechtel, G. Langfelder, D.A. Horsley, MEMS Electrometer With Femtoampere Resolution for Aerosol Particulate Measurements, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 13, No. 8, August 2013, pp. 2993-3000.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Caspani, A. Tocchio, Design Criteria of Low-Power Oscillators for Consumer-Grade MEMS Resonant Sensors, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 61, No. 1, January 2014, pp. 567-574.
  • G. Langfelder, CMOS Pixels Directly Sensitive to Both Visible and Near-Infrared Radiation, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 60, No. 5, May 2013, 1695-1700.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, A. Frangi, A. Tocchio, E. Lasalandra, A. Longoni, Z-Axis Magnetometers for MEMS Inertial Measurement Units Using an Industrial Process, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Vol. 60, No. 9, September 2013, pp. 3983-3990.
  • G. Langfelder, Spectrally reconfigurable pixels for dual-color-mode imaging sensors, Applied Optics, Vol. 51, No. 4, February 2012, A91–A98, ISSN 1559-128X.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, Differential Fringe-Field MEMS Accelerometer, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 59, No. 2, February 2012, 485–490, ISSN 0018-9383.
  • G. Langfelder, S. Dellea, F. Zaraga, D. Cucchi, M. Azpeitia Urquia, The dependence of fatigue in microelectromechanical systems from the environment and the industrial packaging, IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, Issue:99, 10.1109/TIE.2011.2151824, ISSN: 0278-0046.
  • A. Tocchio, C. Comi, G. Langfelder, A. Corigliano, A. Longoni, Enhancing the Linear Range of MEMS Resonators for Sensing Applications, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 12, December 2011, 3202-3210, ISSN 1530-437X.
  • G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, A. Longoni, C. Buffa, Adaptation to the scene in color imaging, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 9, September 2011, 1979-1985, ISSN 1530-437X.
  • F. Zaraga, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, Implementation of an interleaved image sensor by means of the filterless transverse field detector, Journal of Electronic Imaging 19(3), 033013 (Jul–Sep 2010).
  • A. Tocchio, A. Caspani, G. Langfelder, Mechanical and Electronic Amplitude-Limiting Technique in a MEMS Resonant Accelerometer, IEEE Sensor Journal, No.99, doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2011.2177657, ISSN 1530-437X
  • G. Langfelder, T. Frizzi, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, D. Manelli, E. Lasalandra, Readout of MEMS capacitive sensors beyond the condition of pull-in instability, Sens. Actuators A: Phys. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.sna.2011.02.003.
  • C. Buffa, A. Tocchio, G. Langfelder, A Versatile Instrument for the Characterization of Capacitive Micro- and Nanoelectromechanical Systems, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, E. Lasalandra, MEMS Motion Sensors Based on the Variations of the Fringe Capacitances, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol. 11, No. 4, April 2011.
  • C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, B. Simoni, A Resonant Microaccelerometer With High Sensitivity Operating in an Oscillating Circuit, Journal Of Microelectromechanical Systems, Vol. 19, No. 5, October 2010.
  • A. Corigliano, A. Ghisi, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, A. Merassi, A microsystem for the fracture characterization of polysilicon at the micro-scale, European Journal of Mechanics A/Solids 30 (2011) 127-136.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Monitoring fatigue damage growth in polysilicon micro structures under different loading conditions, Sensors and Actuators A 159 (2010) 233–240.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, A novel colour-sensitive CMOS detector, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 610 (2009) 50–53.
  • G. Langfelder, Design of a fully CMOS compatible 3-um size color pixel, Microelectronics Reliability Volume 50, Issue 2, February 2010, Pages 169-173.
  • F. Zaraga, G. Langfelder, White balance by tunable spectral responsivities, Vol. 27, No. 1/January 2010/J. Opt. Soc. Am. A.
  • G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, A. Longoni, Tunable Spectral Responses in a Color-Sensitive CMOS Pixel for Imaging Applications, IEEE Transactions On Electron Devices, VOL. 56, NO. 11, Nov. 2009.
  • G. Langfelder, Isolation of Highly Doped Implants on Low-Doped Active Layers for CMOS Radiation Drift Detectors, IEEE Transactions On Electron Devices, VOL. 56, NO. 8, Aug. 2009.
  • A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, G. Langfelder, L. Bombelli, The Transverse Field Detector: a novel color sensitive CMOS device, IEEE Electron Device Letters, vol. 29, n. 12 Dec. 2008.
  • A. Corigliano, L. Domenella, G. Langfelder, On-Chip Mechanical Characterization using an Electro-thermo-mechanical Actuator, Experimental Mechanics, doi 10.1007/s11340-009-9266-.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, A. Corigliano, A. Ghisi, A. Merassi, A new on-chip test structure for real time fatigue analysis in polysilicon MEMS, Microelectronics Reliability 49 (2009) 120–126.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Low-noise real-time measurement of the position of movable structures in MEMS, Sensors and Actuators A 148 (2008) 401–406.

Books

  • G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, 13 - MEMS integrating motion and displacement sensors, in Smart Sensors and Mems, edited by Stoyan Nihtianov and Antonio Luque, Woodhead Publishing, 2014, Pages 366-401, ISBN 9780857095022, http://dx.doi.org/10.1533/9780857099297.2.366.

Conference Proceedings

  • S. Brenna, P. Minotti, A. Bonfanti, G. Laghi, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A.L. Lacaita, A Low-Noise Sub-500μw Lorentz Force Based Integrated Magnetic Field Sensing System, Proc. MEMS 2015, Estoril, Portugal, January 2015.
  • S. Dellea, R. Ardito, B. De Masi, F. Rizzini, A. Tocchio, G. Langfelder, A Study of Adhesion Forces in Thick Epitaxial Polysilicon Under Dynamic Impact Loading, Proc. MEMS 2015, Estoril, Portugal, January 2015.
  • S. Dellea, F. Giacci, A. Longoni, P. Rey, A. Berthelot, G. Langfelder, Large Full Scale, Linearity and Cross-Axis Rejection in Low-Power 3-Axis Gyroscopes Based on Nanoscale Piezoresistors, Proc. MEMS 2015, Estoril, Portugal, January 2015.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, P. Minotti, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, S. Zerbini, Operation of Lorentz-force MEMS magnetometers with on-off current switching, Proc. ESSCIRC/ESSDERC 2014, Venezia, Italy, September 2014, pp. 62-65.
  • G. Langfelder, S. Dellea, N. Aresi, A. Longoni, Linearity of Piezoresistive Nano-Gauges for MEMS Sensors, Proc. Eurosensors 2014, Brescia, Italy, Procedia Engineering 87 (2014) 1469 – 1472.
  • S. Dellea, G. Laghi, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, P. Minotti, A. Tocchio, S. Zerbini, Off-resonance operation of in-plane torsional MEMS magnetometers, Proc. Eurosensors 2014, Brescia, Italy, Procedia Engineering 87 (2014) 819 – 822.
  • A. Caspani, C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, V. Zega, S. Zerbini, A differential resonant micro accelerometer for out-of-plane measurements, Proc. Eurosensors 2014, Brescia, Italy, Procedia Engineering 87 (2014) 640 – 643.
  • A. Caspani, N. Errico, F. Giacci, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, P.J. Koppinen, J. Saarilahti, Emission profile of multi-membrane CMUT for in-air object localization, Proc. Eurosensors 2014, Brescia, Italy, Procedia Engineering 87 (2014) 592 – 595.
  • G. Langfelder, S. Dellea, P. Rey, A. Berthelot, A. Longoni, Investigation of the Fatigue Origin and Propagation in Submicrometric Silicon Piezoresistive Layers, Proc. MEMS 2014, San Francisco, CA, USA, January 26 - 30, 2014, pp. 640-643.
  • A. Caspani, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, E. Linari, V. Tommolini, Analysis of a 64x64 matrix of direct color sensors based on spectrally tunable pixels, Proc. SPIE-IS&T Digital Photography X, 2014, Vol. 9023 90230O-1, doi: 10.1117/12.2041246.
  • A. Caspani, G. Langfelder, P. Minotti, A. Longoni, Characterization and operation of different cMUT membranes in air, Proc. Joint UFFC, EFTF and PFM Symposium 2013, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 1720-1723.
  • A. Frangi, B. De Masi, G. Langfelder, D. Paci, Optimization of Lorentz-force MEMS magnetometers using rarefied-gas-theory, Proc. IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2013), Baltimore, MD, November 2013.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Caspani, A. Tocchio, S. Zerbini, A. Longoni, High-Sensitivity Differential Fringe-Field MEMS Accelerometers, Proc. Transducers/Eurosensors 2013, Barcelona, Spain, June 2013, pp. 1823-1826.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, E. Lasalandra, A. Longoni, Comparison of Lorentz-force MEMS magnetometers based on different capacitive sensing topologies, Proc. Transducers/Eurosensors 2013, Barcelona, Spain, June 2013, pp. 709-712.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, A. F. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Spectrally tunable pixel sensors, Proc. SPIE 8660, 86600A (2013), doi: 10.1117/12.2006181.
  • C. Buffa, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Frangi, E. Lasalandra, Compact MEMS magnetometers for Inertial Measurement Units, Proc. IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2012), pp. 2058-2061.
  • G. Jaramillo, D. A. Horsley, C. Buffa, G. Langfelder, A MEMS based electrometer with a low-noise switched reset amplifier for charge measurement, Proc. IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2012), pp. 192-195.
  • M.A. Martinez, E.M. Valero, J. Hernandez-Andres, G. Langfelder, Spectral reflectance estimation from transverse field detectors responses, CGIV 2012 Sixth European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; May 2012; p. 378-383; ISBN / ISSN: 978-0-89208-299-5.
  • A. Tocchio, A. Caspani, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, E. Lasalandra, A Pierce Oscillator for MEMS Resonant Accelerometer with a novel Low-Power Amplitude Limiting Technique, Proc. International Frequency Control Symposium, Baltimore, MD, May 2012.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, A. Tocchio, A. Frangi, A. Longoni, Design Criteria for MEMS Magnetometers Resonating in Free-Molecule Flow and Out of the Acoustic Bandwidth, Proc. International Frequency Control Symposium, Baltimore, MD, May 2012.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, A. F. Longoni, A. Pelamatti and F. Zaraga, Active pixels of transverse field detector based on a charge preamplifier, Proc. SPIE 8299, 829906 (2012); doi:10.1117/12.910115, ISBN 9780819489463.
  • A. Tocchio, A. Caspani, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, E. Lasalandra, Resolution and Start-up Dynamics of MEMS Resonant Accelerometers, Proc. IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2011) 161–164, ISSN 1930-0395.
  • C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, On the nonlinear behaviour of MEMS resonators, 12th. Int. Conf. on Thermal, Mechanical and Multiphysics Simulation and Experiments in Microelectronics and Microsystems, EuroSimE 2011, Print ISBN 978-1-4577-0107-8.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, A. Longoni, and F. Zaraga, High Color Accuracy image acquisition in single capture, in Imaging Systems Applications, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper IMB3, ISBN 978-1-55752-914-5.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Implementation of a multi-spectral color imaging device without Color Filter Array, Proc. of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 2011, SPIE Vol. 7876, 787608.
  • G. Langfelder, T. Malzbender, A. F. Longoni, F. Zaraga, A device and an algorithm for the separation of visible and near infrared signals in a monolithic Silicon sensor, Proc. of SPIE-IS&T Electronic Imaging 2011, SPIE Vol. 7882, 788207, INVITED PAPER.
  • G. Langfelder, C. Buffa, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Experimental Characterization of a CMOS Pixel with a Tunable Color Space, Proc. Color Imaging Conference, San Antonio, TX, November 2010.
  • C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, B. Simoni, A New Biaxial Silicon Resonant Micro Accelerometer, IEEE MEMS Conference, (2011), 529–532.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, M. J. Thompson, G. Jaramillo, D. A. Horsley, Assessing Micromechanical Sensor Characteristics via Optical and Electrical Metrology, IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2010) 1765–1769.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Design and Realization of a Novel Pixel Sensor for Color Imaging Applications in CMOS 90 nm Technology, Sensors and Microsystems, Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering, 2010, Volume 54, Part 3, 143-146, DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-3606-3_25, ISSN 1876-1100.
  • G. Langfelder, T. Frizzi, A. Tocchio, E. Lasalandra, A. Longoni, Modelling and testing of a MEMS accelerometer controlled and read-out beyond the pull-in instability limit, Proc. Eurosensors XXIV, Procedia Engineering 5 (2010) 1067–1070.
  • A. Tocchio, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, E. Lasalandra, In-plane and Out-of-plane MEMS Motion Sensors Based on Fringe Capacitances, Proc. Eurosensors XXIV, Procedia Engineering 5 (2010) 1392–1395.
  • G. Langfelder, F. Zaraga, A. Longoni, White balance in a color imaging device with electrically tunable color filters, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7444, 744410 (2009); doi:10.1117/12.828148.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, Further developments on a novel color sensitive CMOS detector, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7356, 73562A (2009); doi:10.1117/12.822291.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, The Transverse Field Detector: a CMOS active pixel sensor capable of on-line tuning of the spectral response, IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2009) 1652–1657.
  • C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, B. Simoni, A High Sensitivity Uniaxial Resonant Accelerometer, IEEE MEMS Conference, (2010), 260–263.
  • C. Comi, A. Corigliano, G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, A. Tocchio, B. Simoni, A new two-beam differential resonant micro accelerometer, IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2009) 158–163.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, A. Corigliano, A. Ghisi, A. Merassi, Real-time monitoring of the fatigue damage accumulation in polysilicon microstructures at different applied stresses, IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2009) 888–893.
  • G. Langfelder, A. Longoni, F. Zaraga, A. Corigliano, A. Ghisi, A. Merassi , A Polysilicon Test Structure for Fatigue and Fracture Testing in Micro Electro Mechanical Devices, IEEE SENSORS Conference, (2008) 94–97

Patents

  • G. Langfelder, A. Tocchio, D. Paci, Sensore magnetico includente un trasduttore basato sulla forza di Lorentz pilotato ad una frequenza diversa dalla frequenza di risonanza, e metodo di pilotaggio di un trasduttore basato sulla forza di Lorentz, Italian patent number TO2013A000653.
  • F. Zaraga and G. Langfelder, Metodo per adattare un sistema di acquisizione d'immagine ad una scena, italian patent n. IT MI2009A001990, November 12th 2009.
  • F. Zaraga and G. Langfelder, Photodetector and method for detecting an optical radiation, international patent application n. WO2010/112400 A1, October 7th 2010.
  • A. Longoni, F. Zaraga and G. Langfelder, Luminous Radiation Colour Photosensitive Structure, international patent application n. PCT/IB2007/003906, December 5th 2007, US patent application n. US2009/0189056 A12, July 30th 2009

Invited Talks / Other

  • G. Langfelder, Miniaturized Sensors for Ultra-Low-Power Inertial Measurement Units, presentation given at the “Advances in MEMS Seminar” scientific event promoted by Invensense, Milano, Italy, October 11th 2014. link
  • G. Langfelder, Towards All-Mems 9-Axis Inertial Measurement Units: Approaches and Challenges in the Design of Magnetometers, presentation within the SINANO Doctoral Summer School, Bertinoro (FC), Italy, August 29th 2014,. link
  • G. Langfelder, A device and an algorithm for the separation of visible and near infrared signals in a monolithic Silicon sensor, invited talk at the 2011 ISET/SPIE Electronic Imaging Conference, January, 25th 2011.
  • G. Langfelder, What would you do with a tunable sensor… if you had it?, SCIEN Colloquium held at Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, January 30th 2012. link
  • G. Langfelder, A color sensitive pixel with tunable spectral responsivities, SCIEN Colloquium held at Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, August 10th 2009. link

 
SanDLab NEWS
02-05-2016 "A 3-D Micromechanical Multi-Loop Magnetometer Driven Off-Resonance by an On-Chip Resonator" by G.Laghi et al. has been accepted for publication! Congratulations to all the co-authors!

01-07-2015 Three new instruments to complete the SandLab equipment for inertial sensor characterization! A 50 V high-resolution MCP by ITmems, a 50 MHz Lock-in amplifier by Zurich Instrument, and a new vibrating shaker from B&K!

01-07-2015. Two SandLab articles accepted for publication in the Journal of MEMS: "In-Plane and Out-of-Plane MEMS Gyroscopes Based on Piezoresistive NEMS Detection" by S. Dellea et al., and "A sub-400 nT/√Hz, 775 μW, multi-loop MEMS Magnetometer with Integrated Readout Electronics" by P. Minotti et al. Congratulations to all the co-authors! We look forward to see the published version!

MEMS
NIRVANA - EU Project

01-09-2011. SanDLab started a new challenging project part of the Seventh Framework Programme of the European Union. This project goes under the acronym of NIRVANA.
MEMS
Lab4MEMS

01-01-2013. SanDLab started a new challenging project part of the ENIAC framework.